CASE STUDIES

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S. G. Potts and S. Roberts ALARM Pollinator Module: Data Mining Report The ALARM pollinator module has an overall aim to quantify the distribution shifts in key pollinator taxa across Europe. This report focuses on the progress relating to one of the approaches to this: mining and analysing existing data.
J. Cane Importance of squash bees (Peponapis & Xenoglossa) as pollinators of domestic Cucurbita in the Americas: SPAS (Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey) An alternative methodology is presented for monitoring the wild pollinator dynamics of a widespread croppollination system in the Americas, involving squashes and squash bees.
J. Cane Squash Bee Methodology Spreadsheet Spreadsheet to accompany the squash bee monitoring methodology
J. Cane Squash Bee Spreadsheet Notes Explanation of spreadsheets for squash bee data
D. Roubik Orchid bees as model systems for pollinator dynamics studies Orchid bee studies highlight the need for multi-year abundance and population studies, in order to clarify the population trends of pollinators.
A. Felicioli Census of pollinators in the agricultural landscape of Italy The results of a census of the pollinators present within Italy, in agroecosystems and in semi-natural landscapes is presented.
D. Roubik Differing trends in bee populations recorded in protected habitats The natural dynamics of pollinators are illustrated by two 17-year studies, and a 25-year study in Central and South America of native bees on flowers, coming to specific attractants or at light traps, in lowland forests and a cloud forest.
A. Zayed, D. Roubik, and L. Packer Diploid male frequency is a critical indicator of decline in bee populations Higher frequencies of diploid males are documented in smaller reserves and habitat islands in Panama.
G. LeBuhn, S. Droege and M. Carboni Monitoring methods for solitary bee species using bee bowls in North America Inter-year variability of counts generated by different bee survey techniques are compared, impacts of different modifications of bee bowls on capture rates of bees are discussed, and a standardized protocol for sampling bees is outlined.
S. Roberts Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society (BWARS) An amateur recording society is described that aims to promote the recording of aculeate Hymenoptera in Great Britain and Ireland, and to foster links with similar societies and interested individuals throughout Europe.
S. Potts ALARM project: Assessing Large-scale risks to biodiversity with tested methods The ALARM project (Assessing Large-scale Environmental Risks to Biodiversity with Tested Methods is described, which is undertaking an integrated risk assessment across Europe with particular emphasis on: pollinator loss, climate change, invasive species
P. Rasmont, A. Pauly, M. Terzo, S.Patiny, D.Michez, S. Iserbyt, Y Barbier & E.Haubruge The survey of wild bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in Belgium and France Surveys of wild bees in Belgium and France indicate that numerous species are strongly declining; some species are stable, and a few species are also known to be expanding.
S. Potts A Toolkit of Standardised Methods to Assess Pollinator Biodiversity The need to develop a standardised set of methods to allow rapid, reliable and repeatable assessments across habitat types and in different geographic regions of Europe is reviewed.
T. Ricketts Economic value of wild pollinators to coffee crops On a Costa Rican coffee farm, fields near forest fragments received more pollinator visits by a more diverse community of bees, higher rates of pollen deposition and higher productivity than fields distant from forest.
S. Droege, J. Pickering Development of a Key to Bee Genera of Eastern North America In North America, as well as nearly everywhere else, there is a lack of taxonomically current, accurate, and user friendly identification keys. To fill that vacuum this initiative has begun to create guides using the free software, starting with Eastern N
El laboratorio de Abejas del Departamento de Biología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia El laboratorio de Abejas del Departamento de Biología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha realizado y esta realizando los siguientes proyectos dentro del marco del programa Diversidad geonómica y manejo sostenible de fauna silvestre.
G. N. Parra y R. O. Torres ll Encuentro Colombiano de Abejas Silvestres Reunir periódicamente a todos los estudiosos de las abejas silvestres, sea esta la oportunidad para volver a reunirnos y contar los avances que hemos tenido en nuestras actividades apoideológicas.
D. P. Vázquez Introduced ungulates and their effects on plant-animal interactions in the temperate forest of the southern Andes Recent studies aimed at understandng the effect of introduced ungulates on networks of interactions between plants and pollinators in the temperate forest of the sourthen Andes are discussed.
N. Chacoff & M. A. Aizen Efectos de la distancia al borde del pedemonte sobre la polinización del Pomelo del noroeste de Argentina Evaluamos el efecto del pedemonte como fuente de polinizadores para cultivos de pomelo del Noroeste argentino (NOA ) y sus efectos sobre los niveles de polinización y producción de frutos.
N. Chacoff & M. A. Aizen Effects of distance to the forest edge on northwestern Argentinian grapefruit pollination The effect of the forest as source of pollinators for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) plantations in Northwestern Argentina, and their effects on pollination and fruit production is evaluated.
C.A. Kearns, D. Oliveras and B. Forrest The Effects of Urbanization on Pollinator Diversity and Abundance in Boulder Grassland Open Space, Boulder, Colorado, USA. This ongoing study, begun in the summer of 2001, attempts to evaluate the effects of urbanization on the pollinator community in the Boulder area of the Colorado Front Range.
S.G. Potts Understanding pollinator community organisation can help us manage pollinator biodiversity In the case study presented here, both fire and grazing are potentially useful tools for creating and maintaining floral communities and providing nesting resources to conserve and protect bee diversity.
J. Memmott Plant-pollinator webs This case study describes a research program focused at complex web level of plant-pollinator interactions, using food web techniques to study plants and their pollinators.
I. dos Alves-Santos Specialised pollinators of water hyacinth Water hyacinth has three floral morphs that differ in the length and position of their reproductive organs. The absence of the specialized pollinators may cause the breakdown of the trystilyous system.
R. Villanueva-G., D.W. Roubik, W. Colli-Ucan Extinction of Melipona beecheii and traditional beekeeping in the Yucatan Peninsula? Bee decline in a largely intact habitat has been documented for the culturally and economically famous Maya stingless bee, Melipona beecheii, in Mexico.
M. Mayfield Ayamaran Farmers: Summary of interviews about crop pollination in August 1998 A summary of a trip to Santa Barbara, Bolivia to learn about indigenous knowledge of bees and local crop pollination.
D.W. Roubik Native and African bees are principal components of coffee production. Two studies in Panama within highland areas near forest showed that native bees and the introduced African honeybee were responsible for one-third of the coffee bean harvest.
M. Mayfield Natural Pollination Strategies for Agricultural Systems To understand pollination options for agriculture, it is argued that we must first understand the similarities between wild and crop pollination systems and why most wild pollination systems utilize a diversity of pollinators.
T. Ya, X. Jia-sui, C. Keming Hand pollination of pears and its implications for biodiversity conservation and environmental protection -- A case study from Hanyuan County, Sichuan Province, China To understand the issues of hand pollination of pears, natural pollinators, impacts of agricultural transformation on biodiversity conservationt, and effect of insecticides, a case study was designed and carried out at Hanyuan County in Sichuan, China.
ICIMOD Cash crop farming in Nepal: the importance of pollinators diversity and managed pollination in Citrus A study was carried out to identify insect pollinator’s diversity and explore citrus production and marketing potential for generating cash income for improving livelihood of the rural subsistence farmers in Nepal.
A.W. Jasra and M. A. Rafi Cash crop farming in the northern Pakistan: the importance of pollinator diversity and managed pollination in apricots The use of pollinators in fruit and crop production for enhanced and quality yields in Pakistan is discussed.
H.K. Sharma Cash Crops Farming In The Himalayas: The Importance Of Pollinators And Pollination In Vegetable Seed Production In Kullu Valley Of Himachal Pradesh, India Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh is known for commercial seed production of temperate vegetable crops. A survey gathered information on climatic conditions including changes of recent years.
V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca How to get stingless bees nests in nature Considerations on nesting behaviour and concerns on resources availability for stingless bees are addressed.
D. Martins Pollination ecology of papaya on small-holder farms in Kenya As papaya is grown widely in Kenya on small-holdings as a domestic fruit and small-scale cash crop, pollination is key component of productivity and may also play a role in fruit quality.
P. Kwapong Rapid assessment of pollination needs of five crops in Ghana Five crops in Ghana were assessed for pollination needs: groundnut, mango, oil palm, coconut and cashew.
G. Tribe Rapid assessment of stone fruit pollination needs in South Africa Report of rapid assessment to determine: What are the major pollinators of the orchard crops, the exotic weeds, and the indigenous vegetation in South Africa?
W. Kinuthia and L. Njoroge Rapid assessment of Floral Visitors on Avocado Persea americana mill. in Kiambu, Central Kenya Avocado in Kiambu, Kenya was assessed for pollination needs.
D. Martins Pollination Ecology of an important dryland browse Acacia (Acacia tortilis) in pastoralist landscapes in Kenya Acacia in Kenya was assessed for pollination needs and management.
R. Medellin Bats and pollination in Mexico Impacts of a decline in pollination services provided by lesser long-nosed bats on more than 1 million square kilometers of habitat in Mexico whose ecological function depend on the bats services is considered.
M.T. Almanza, J.R. Cure, M. Aguilar, C. Alvarez, D. Rubio, D. Rojas, D. Vecil and J. Aldana Native Bumblebees Rearing for Pollination of Crops in the Highlands of Columbia A project on native bumblebee rearing in central zone of Colombia, the Sabana de Bogotáis is described. Research has been done at three levels: Natural populations, colonies reared in captivity and introduced colonies of native species.
C. Carvell, R. Pywell, B. Meek, M. Heard and M. Nowakowski Enhancing Habitats for Bumblebees and Other Pollinators in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes Research undertaken by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) is presented, including work to evaluate effects on bumblebees of different agri-environment scheme options, and to identify best management practices and transfer to farming communities.
D. Goulson Conservation of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) in the UK Bumblebees have declined greatly in abundance throughout Europe and North America, and several countrywide extinctions have occurred. Causes of these declines are summarized.
S M. Kamel Breeding and Propagation of some leaf cutting bees to increase alfalfa seeds production in Egypt Work aimed at utilizing and development of a system to manage and increase leaf cutting bees to increase seed production of alfalfa in Egypt is described.
S. Potts Enhancing the biodiversity value of intensive livestock farms: the PEBIL project The PEBIL project (Potential to Enhance Biodiversity in Intensive Livestock farms) will form the basis for developing agri-environment management agreements for intensive livestock farms to improve value for pollinators and other wildlife.
C.S. Stubbs and F.A. Drummond Conserving native pollinators of blueberry Habitat manipulation was used as a management strategy in order to conserve and increase declining local populations of Osmia spp., important native bee pollinators of lowbush blueberry.
C. Kremen and M. Vaughan Pollination Services to Crops in Yolo Co., California: working towards restoration The contributions of wild bee pollinators to pollination of watermelon, sunflower, almond and tomato in the Central Valley of California was studied, along a gradient of agricultural intensification.
D. P. Vásquez Curso de Postgrado : Ecologia de la polinizacion The objectives of a pollination course are described, including: (1) to create a space for discussion on this fascinating field of scientific research, and (2) to apply theoretical knowledge to the development of a pertinent research project.
S. Potts European Union (EU) Agri-Environmental Schemes Agri-environmental schemes aim is to enhance biological diversity across a range of plant and animal groups, including pollinators. The cost to the farmer in supplying these environmental services is compensated through payments.
S.G. Potts European Pollinator Initiative (EPI) The EPI aims to integrate and co-ordinate local, national and international activities relating to pollination into a cohesive network in order to safeguard the services provided by pollinators across the continent.
L.D. Adams North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) The North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) is a collaboration of diverse partners working to protect pollinators and raise the profile of pollinator issues.
R. Jones What is IBRA? The International Bee Research Association (IBRA) is a not-for-profit organization with worldwide membership, established in 1949. It aims to increase awareness of the vital role of bees in the environment, and as sources of income.